Vitamin is one of a group of organic substances, present in minute amounts in natural foodstuffs that are essential to normal metabolism; insufficient amounts in the diet may cause deficiency diseases.
Vitamin D levels should be boosted for intense sporting activity to avoid stress fractures
Many lifestyle and environmental factors can affect your ability to get sufficient amounts of this vitamin through the sun alone. These factors include
It's a key component for the well functioning of brain, nervous system & formation of blood. 92% of the vegans those who ate the strictest vegetarian diet had vitamin B12 deficiency.
The liver is a large, meaty organ & its main job is to filter the blood coming from the digestive tract, before passing it to the rest of the body. The liver also detoxifies chemicals and metabolizes drugs. Liver also secretes bile that ends up back in the intestines. Liver also makes proteins important for blood clotting and other functions.
Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found in your bloodstream. ALP helps break down proteins in the body and exists in different forms, depending on where it originates. It is mostly produced in your liver. An alkaline phosphatase level test (ALP test) measures the amount of alkaline phosphatase enzyme in your bloodstream.
The total protein test measures the total amount of protein in your blood and specifically looks for the amount of albumin and globulin.
Proteins circulate throughout your blood to help your body maintain fluid balance. Albumin is a type of protein the liver produces. It's one of the most abundant proteins in your blood. Albumin also carries vital nutrients and hormones, and provides your body with the proteins it needs to maintain growth and repair tissue.
Bilirubin is a yellow pigment that is in everyone's blood and stool. If you notice a yellowing of your skin or the whites of your eyes, this is called jaundice, and it may be caused by high levels of bilirubin.
Bilirubin is made in the body when old red blood cells are broken down. The breakdown of old cells is a normal, healthy process. After circulating in your blood, bilirubin then travels to your liver. In the liver, bilirubin is excreted into the bile duct and stored in your gall bladder. Eventually, the bilirubin is released the small intestine as bile to help digest fats and ultimately excreted with your stool.
Bilirubin attached to sugar is called “direct” or “conjugated” bilirubin, and bilirubin without sugar is called “indirect” or “unconjugated” bilirubin. All the bilirubin in your blood together is called “total” bilirubin.
If bilirubin is not being attached to sugars (conjugated) in the liver and/or is not being adequately removed from the blood, it can mean that there is damage to your liver. Testing for bilirubin in the blood is therefore a good test of damage to your liver.
This test is determining the specific levels of different types of globulin in the blood stream. These are used to help transport proteins through the lipoproteins and assisting the blood in clotting.
AST is a protein made by liver cells. When liver cells are damaged, AST leaks out into the bloodstream and the level of AST in the blood becomes higher than normal. AST is found in parts of the body other than the liver--including the heart, kidneys, muscles, and brain. When cells in any of those parts of the body are damaged, AST can be elevated. A high AST level often means there is some liver damage.
ALT (SGPT) is, by contrast, normally found largely in the liver. This is not to say that it is exclusively located in the liver, but that is where it is most concentrated. It is released into the bloodstream as the result of liver injury. Thus, it serves as a fairly specific indicator of liver status.
The kidneys are a pair of fist-sized organs located at the bottom of the rib cage. One kidney is on each side of the spine. Each kidney has millions of small blood-filtering units called nephrons. The nephrons constantly filter blood through a very tiny cluster of blood vessels known as glomeruli. These structures filter waste products, excess water, and other impurities out of the blood. The toxins are stored in the bladder and then removed during urination.
Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the the human body. Calcium helps form and maintain healthy teeth and bones. Proper levels of calcium over a lifetime can help prevent osteoporosis.
Uric acid is a chemical created when the body breaks down substances called purines. Purines are found in some foods and drinks. These include liver, anchovies, mackerel, dried beans and peas and beer.
Most uric acid dissolves in blood and travels to the kidneys. From there, it passes out in urine. If your body produces too much uric acid or doesn't remove enough if it, you can get sick. A high level of uric acid in the blood is called hyperuricemia.
A blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test measures the amount of nitrogen in your blood that comes from the waste product urea. Urea is made when protein is broken down in your body. Urea is made in the liver and passed out of your body in the urine. A BUN test is done to see how well your kidneys are working.
The ratio between a person's BUN and blood creatinine to help determine what is causing these concentrations to be higher than normal. The ratio of BUN to creatinine is usually between 10:1 and 20:1. An increased ratio may be due to a condition that causes a decrease in the flow of blood to the kidneys, such as congestive heart failure or dehydration. It may also be seen with increased protein, from gastrointestinal bleeding, or increased protein in the diet. The ratio may be decreased with liver disease (due to decrease in the formation of urea) and malnutrition.
Iron is an important component of hemoglobin, the substance in red blood cells that carries oxygen from your lungs to transport it throughout your body. Hemoglobin represents about two-thirds of the body's iron.
If you don't have enough iron, your body can't make enough healthy oxygen-carrying red blood cells. A lack of red blood cells is called iron deficiency anemia. It can also affect to brain function of your immune system's ability to fight off infections.
Iron has other important functions, too. "Iron is also necessary to maintain healthy cells, skin, hair, and nails.
According to the World Health Organization, iron deficiency is the most common mineral deficiency worldwide with women and children.
A serum iron test measures how much iron is in your serum. Serum is the liquid that is left over from your blood when red blood cells and clotting factors have been removed.
A total iron-binding capacity (TIBC or transferrin) test is used to measure the amount of iron in the body.
Transferrin is a glyco-protein that's found in blood plasma (the liquid part of blood). It's capable of binding iron and acts as a carrier for iron in the bloodstream.
If you have an iron deficiency (a lack of iron in your blood), your iron level will be low but your TIBC will be high.
If you have too much iron – for example, if you have a condition such ashaemochromatosis, your iron level will be high but your TIBC will be low or normal.
As transferrin is produced by the liver, your TIBC level will also be low if you have liver disease.
It is the ratio of serum iron and total iron-binding capacity, multiplied by 100. Of the transferrin that is available to bind iron, this value tells a clinician how much serum iron is actually bound.
Your thyroid is a small butterfly-shaped gland found at the base of your neck. This gland makes thyroid hormone that travels in your blood to all parts of your body. The thyroid hormone controls your body's metabolism in many ways, including how fast you burn calories and how fast your heart beats.
Disease: Imbalance in production of thyroid hormones arises from dysfunction of the thyroid gland itself.
A) Hypothyroidism: Hypothyroidism is when your thyroid does not make enough thyroid hormones.
B) Hyperthyroidism: Hyperthyroidism is when your thyroid to make more thyroid hormone than your body needs.
A T3 test is performed as part of an evaluation of thyroid function. It measures the blood level of the hormone T3 (triiodothyronine), some of which is produced directly by the thyroid gland.
Our thyroid produces a hormone, thyroxine, which is known as T4. This hormone plays a role in several of your body's functions, including growth and metabolism. This test measure the amount of thyroxine in blood.
A TSH test measures the amount of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in your blood. TSH is produced by the pituitary gland. It tells the thyroid gland to make and release thyroid hormones into the blood.
This is a disease in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin.
Its measure the average blood sugar levels have been over a period of weeks/months.
This test is a blood test that provides information about a person's average levels of blood glucose, also called blood sugar, over the past 3 months.
It's also known as complete blood cell count. The cells that circulate in the bloodstream are generally divided into three types:
Abnormally high or low counts may indicate the presence of many forms of disease, and hence blood counts are amongst the most commonly performed blood tests in medicine, as they can provide an overview of a patient's general health status.
A testosterone test measures the amount of testosterone in the blood. It is also called a serum testosterone test. Testosterone (sometimes referred to simply as “T”) is a hormone produced by both males and females. It plays a role in puberty and fertility. It also affects sexual desire.
A complete cholesterol test (also called a lipid panel or lipid profile) measures the amount of “good” and “bad” cholesterol and the level of triglycerides in your blood. Cholesterol is a soft, waxy fat that your body needs to function properly. However, too much cholesterol can lead to heart disease, stroke, and atherosclerosis.
HDL is high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The test may also be done regularly for people who are at risk for heart disease, including those who:
It is helpful to know your non-HDL cholesterol because your level of non-HDL may predict your risk of cardiovascular disease even better than your LDL (bad) cholesterol. That's because your non-HDL number tells you all the bad cholesterol circulating in your blood – not only your LDL cholesterol but also your levels of VLDL, IDL, and chylomicroms.
The triglyceride level test helps measure the amount of triglycerides in your blood. Triglycerides are a type of fat, or lipid, found in the blood. The results of this test help your doctor determine your risk of developing heart disease.
LDL stands for low-density lipoprotein, a type of cholesterol found in your body. LDL is often referred to as bad cholesterol.
The main purpose of VLDL is to distribute the triglyceride produced by your liver. A high VLDL cholesterol level can cause the buildup of cholesterol in your arteries and increases your risk of heart disease and stroke.